Catecismo popular de la penitencia (Spanish Edition)
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Nonetheless, the parallels in substance and style show the close relationship of the Andean author to the work of the " grandes letrados " of the Dominican order ; the writings and the preachings of the latter did set up at least a small series of reverberations in the native Andean population. The Dominican influence on Guaman Poma did not stop with the way in which he phrased his arguments for the just return of alienated lands to the Andean people.
We can also see that one of Las Casas' formal treatises in the field of political polemics, the Tratado de las doce dudas, provided a source of intellectual stimulus for Guaman Poma. It is known that the Tratado circulated among the Dominicans in the Peruvian viceroyalty 84 ; through those members of the order active in Guamanga, the Andean author must have become acquainted with the work. This process also serves to render Guaman Poma's sometimes. Again, he followed Las Casas, whose Principles Three and Four of the Doce dudas had declared that the only just cause for conceding the sovereignty of the Indies to the Kings of Castile and Leon was in order to spread the Christian faith, but that this authority was not intended to deprive the Indians of their own rights and jurisdictions Well after Las Casas was off the colonial scene — twenty, perhaps even forty years after his death — and his concerns no longer a matter of active debate among those of the colonial establishment, his ideas enjoyed a second wave of vitality among members of the native Andean population.enter
Sacramentos de curacion
The most far-reaching and imaginative use that Guaman Poma made of the Las Casas repertoire of ideas was his utilization of the popular theme that the Andeans had not been conquered in a just war. Throughout the work he continuously returned to these two central themes. Although the encomienda no longer posed a major threat to the indigenous population by the time that Guaman Poma completed his manuscript, it remained important to him as an Andean who had lived and observed its abuses during. By the last quarter of the same century, encomienda was gradually being phased out by the colonial administration.
For the Andeans who lived under its aegis, however, it was still a bitter memory of injustice and hardship, and Guaman Poma made a thoroughgoing attack on the great inequities of the system Guaman Poma's own efforts to mitigate the injustices of the corregimiento included the establishment of classes to teach reading and writing to Andeans so that they could defend themselves from the corregidores He also cited petitions on behalf of local Indians that he had presented in various towns , The existence of such petitions has since been verified ; the documentation shows that Guaman Poma was clearly considered a trouble-maker from the point of view of the colonial administration 8e.
When he declared how despised the indios ladinos were by the colonists, and how they were often exiled from their provinces because of the fear that they would present lawsuits against the settlers , Guaman Poma again showed that a new social role, defined by the ability to read and write and encouraged by people like himself, was being created ; the petitioner, like the author, used the written word as the principal means of social intervention and protest Fig. Another major area of concern in Guaman Poma's work, which will be the final focus of inquiry in this essay, reflects very well the Andean author's changing perception of the events around him through the decades during which he composed his treatise : this was the question of religious proselytization and the conversion of the Andean people to Christianity.
While on historical grounds he denied that the ancient Andeans had been infidels, in pragmatic terms he conceded the need for vigorous and skilled proselytizing among his people. Guaman Poma's references to the early series of Church Councils, which were held in Lima to consider the best methods of converting the Andeans, exemplify this concern.
By examining the way in which he employed that work in his own text, it will be possible to see how the Andean writer responded to the Conciliar methods of proselytizing indigenous Andean society. The Tercero catecismo is a series of thirty-one short sermons, presented in side-by-side versions in Spanish and in Cuzco Quechua. Guaman Poma treated virtually all of the themes of the Catecismo's sermons in his own work, including discussions of the sacraments of baptism, confession, and marriage , , In addition, Guaman Poma used the form of the sermon to also address, and indeed, attack, his European audience.
The prologues that accompany each. Here he adopted the same strident, threatening prose that characterized the Catecismo's sermons ; the warning that those colonists who did not make restitution would be condemned to Hell is typical of this rhetorical technique , The examination of the Concilier text alongside that of Guaman Poma reveals the extent to which the latter was framed according to the model of the Conei- liar guide to Christian living. While the correspondence is not a sure indication that Guaman Poma approved the actions taken by the Third Council, his repeated praise of the Jesuits, not coincidentally the order that guided and dominated the Third Council, does demonstrate at least his initial positive response towards the major evangelizing trends in colonial Peru , , , , Fig.
For Guaman Poma, one major attraction of the early Jesuits may have been the attitude shared by many that was enunciated by Acosta, who favored thorough and rigorous evangelizing but who maintained liberal attitudes toward the preservation of the indigenous culture The main thrust of program of Christian missionizing remained, of course, an effort to turn the native population away from their former beliefs.
This effort, however, varied in intensity through the first eighty years of the Colony. The early missionaries in Peru, though they stressed the importance of proselytizing in the native languages, were frequently somewhat casual in their conversion techniques ; simple baptism was the primary evangelizing activity and a generally positive mood prevailed towards the indigenous population. The Andean reaction to this missionary style can be seen in Guaman Poma's high praise for the work of those first missionaries This benevolent attitude changed radically in the late 's with the Takiy Unquy uprising.
The Church inspector Cristobal de Albornoz undertook a violent campaign to stamp out this millenarian movement, and was able to gain support for his policy from the colonists. Events in Europe may have served to galvanize this support for a more demanding evangelization. Spain herself had to conquer by war the recalcitrant moriscos of Granada in , and by had expelled this last major group within its borders which.
Cristo y la virgen
This is, of course, the same period in which the " heresies of the North " had stimulated the institutionalized reactions of the Church in the Council of Trent Guaman Poma's writings provide an Andean insight both into this first period of repressive proselytization and into a later one in the next century. A comparison of his attitude towards the two sets of events reveals his own changing preception of the position of Andean, people.
As mentioned above, Guaman Poma had served as interpreter for the visitador Albornoz , who spent years in Guaman Poma's province of Lucanas in an effort to destroy the Takiy Unquy movement Duviols states that Guaman Poma worked for Albornoz during the period , citing as evidence the description of a novel punishment for idolatry that appears both in Guaman Poma and in an Albornoz text The similarity of these descriptions is not coincidental, for twenty pages after Guaman Poma describes this punishment to be served on those who fail to attend mass, we find a picture of an Indian enduring this castigo, and the supervising priest standing nearby is identified by Guaman Poma as the same Cristobal de Albornoz Fig.
The four or five which he considered to be particularly dangerous because of their prevalence were the same ones set forth by Guaman Poma in his chapters on the guacas of the Incas and common witchcraft practices of that period When Guaman Poma described the particular guacas of the various regions of Chinchaysuyu , he listed fourteen different provinces, all of which were included in Albornoz' catalogue of the provinces which he had visited on his inspection tour It appears that the entirety of Guaman Poma's exposition on ancient Inca practices was based on data which he gathered while part of Albornoz' inspection team in the late.
Guaman Poma's reaction to the early work of Albornoz in Lucanas was positive.
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He declared his admiration for the inspector, calling him " llano st0 hombre " and " brabo jues " His insistence that the practitioners of idolatry should be punished " cin misericordia " confirmed his approval of Albornoz' judgments and castigos as stern and rigorous, but fairly administered. That this approval was actually emulation can be seen at the end of Guaman Poma's chapter on Inca rites and religious practices ; there he declared that he had written the preceding exposition in order that idolatrous practices harmful to Catholic beliefs could be sought out and punished In this way, Guaman Poma converted his exposition of ancient superstitions into a guide to be used by contemporary visitadores ; he imitated the kind of report that his one-time employer Albornoz was accustomed to making.
Guaman Poma's text bears further resemblance to Albornoz' work in the prohibition of certain Andean practices. One of these pictorial expositions is entitled " borrachera ",' and shows an Andean in crouching position, vomiting, while a winged demon with horns and tail kneels on the drunken man's back ; a woman standing nearby beats a drum Fig.
Without mentioning Takiy Urtquy by name, Guaman Poma's accompanying description of this picture refers to those practices associated with the revitalization movement, as is verified by a comparison with Albornoz' instructional text M. Guaman Poma identified this practice as an ancient superstition Which should be punished by fifty lashes ; he also advised that animals should be slaughtered only by decapitation and that herds, throughout the kingdom, should be care-.
After the decapitation of the Takiy Unquy movement, the Peruvian viceroyalty was calm for some time during the tenure of Toribio de Mogrovejo as Archbishop of Lima Mogrovejo, who was liberal and pro-Indian, undertook inspection tours personally ; Guaman Poma admired his work as visitador Upon Mogrovejo's death in , a new period of severe proselytization began.
Guaman Poma's attitude had changed dramatically in the course of the years he spent writing. By and afterward, when the major extirpation campaigns were underway, Guaman Poma viewed the movement to crush Andean religions as one of the most bitter experiences suffered by the Andean people.
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In a section near the conclusion of the book, in a chapter that was probably the last to be written, Guaman Poma narrated his own travels from village to village, during which he interviewed both Andeans and Spaniards. Ironically, the coroza punishment which Albornoz had used and Guaman Poma had endorsed as form of public humiliation to curb both idolatry and laxness in the performance of Christian religious duties was the very means by which Avila allegedly persecuted innocent Andeans , and Guaman Poma reflected upon it with bitterness.
Francisco Toledo: Art of Magical Mutations
The severe injustice of the extirpation movement of the second decade of the seventeenth century was one of the chief causes that changed Guaman Poma's earlier reformist optimism into a bleak attitude, making this last autobiographical chapter of his book a recital of despair Even though the Jesuits figured prominently in the war against idolatry, there is, interestingly, no textual evidence of a change in Guaman Poma's positive and cordial attitude toward them as a group. Even though we can gauge the Andean reaction to specific events in the colonial period, it is my broader contention that Guaman Poma's response to the colonized society in which he lived was in reality the creation of his book.
As interpreter and secretary, the written word was an important part of his life from early on. Beyond that, the people whom he admired most were all the authors of books , Guaman Poma probly knew the Franciscan as a youth, since the Ayala family had ties to Ore's Guaman Poma's work, again like Ore's, discussed the history of the Indies from the origin of the inhabitants of the Andes after the Flood up to the contemporary geographic and demographic descriptions of the provinces, cities, and towns of the Vice- royalty 5e. Judging from what Guaman Poma had to say about all the other roles and functions in colonial society, it seems fair to conclude that Ore and others like him were not just Guaman Poma's literary heroes, but also his only heroes in a milieu which he preceived, by , to be hopelessly corrupt.
Guaman Poma's remarlable page treatise had no single goal, but rather strove toward many ends. As he saw the evangelization of the Andeans as the most useful stratagem for facilitating their participation in the new society, he emulated the efforts of Acosta and Ore and composed a religious manual with devotional exercises in Quechua. To guide the reform of colonial society, he wrote an encyclopedic handbook for every different social category. In each of these tasks, Guaman Poma created for himself, through his writing, a social role that was not available to him in the external world of everyday affairs.
Fig- 1. John V. Nathan Wachtel, La vision des vaincus. Paris : L'Institut d'Ethnologie, AU citations of the text will refer to this edition, and will be given as parenthetical references consisting of the page number only, following the author's original pagination which is reproduced in the facsimile text. Murra, p. Ossio A. Catecismo popular de la penitencia Spanish Edition Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device.
Happy reading Catecismo popular de la penitencia Spanish Edition Bookeveryone. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Francisco Toledo: Art of Magical Mutations Penitente rites have been observed by very few outsiders, and the secrecy of the order prevents confirmation or detailed description of any present activities.
Article excerpt Nonetheless, the parallels in substance and style show the close relationship of the Andean author to the work of the " grandes letrados " of the Dominican order ; the writings and the preachings of the latter did set up at least a small series of reverberations in the native Andean population. Juan M. Search books.
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