O Livro dos Homens sem Luz (Portuguese Edition)
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Nova York, Harper and Row.
Rio de Janeiro, Zahar. Rio de Janeiro, Guanabara Koogan. Rio de Janeiro, Rocco.
Frankfurt, Suhrkamp. Lisboa, Editora Livros do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro, Record. Darmstadt, Westdeutsche.
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Nova York, Free Press. Key words Sociology of the personalism; Damattian sociology; Selective modernization; Brazilian dilemma; Dual citizenship. The article comments on the studies that analyze the Brazilian social formation according to the theoretical paradigm of personalism, emphasizing the debate with Roberto Da Matta's dual sociology. From a metatheoretical point of view, it criticizes the supposition, often implicit, of a unilateral and indifferent concept of Western modernity that makes possible the definition of Brazil as the "Other" within modernity.
From a more properly defined theoretical point of view, it criticizes the lack of a theory concerning social stratification, which could promote an adequate comprehension of the interaction between values and their institutionalization. The second part of the article suggests an alternative interpretation from Da Matta's in which it considers some neglected aspects of his analyses that would allow us to perceive the relationship between backwardness and modernity as well as the coexistence between the real possibility of social ascendancy and marginalization, which has been a characteristic of Brazilian society.
She studied law, worked as a lawyer and wrote scripts for the cinema. O retorno, her latest novel, has been awarded the Special Prize of the Critics in Portugal, and was selected as Book of the Year Author Biographies: Denise Mina is the author of eleven novels, three graphic novels, three plays and many short stories. In he was the recipient of the New Authors Prize.
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His novels have been published in seven countries, including France, Italy and Brazil. He also works as a columnist, translator, screenwriter and regularly teaches fiction workshops. If these perspectives question the relationship between the Inquisition and the Crown and secular authorities, the attention of historians has focused above all on the not always linear relations between the justices of the faith and other agents of the Portuguese Church, headed by bishops and regular clerics, with the inevitable fallout while defining their respective jurisdictions.
A third field of analysis pertains to the activities and the diffusion of the Holy Office in imperial territories.
In the case of the Portuguese Inquisition, apart from new factual knowledge, it gave up contrasting ideological positions regarding the hereditary nature of the tribunal. It also encouraged studies about the Inquisition, overcoming the habitual national barriers and expanding the tools available to historians engaged in other social sciences, ranging from anthropology to sociology.
An ambitious plan has been set in motion to prepare a comprehensive prosopography of familiars based on qualification processes, presently limited to a single volume. There are few available works, which are often outdated and until now have not shed any light on the role of the delicate power balances in the functioning of the higher bodies of the tribunal or that of clientary ties in the selection of internal personnel. There is still no overview of the activities of an inquisitor-general, while the working of the General Council of the Holy Office also remains unexplored.
The suggestion by Robert Rowland to again propose in the case of Portugal the classic model of Sotos contra Riquelmes mooted by Jaime Contreras has largely gone unheeded. As pointed out by Amiel, it enabled to charge an accused with a crime that he committed after the imprisonment. This denial of one of the most fundamental principle of the Western legal tradition was a distinctive characteristic of the Iberian Inquisitions. From this point of view, reflections on the role of the Inquisition in the non-linear events of Portuguese ecclesiastical justice highlight the almost total absence of studies about relations between inquisitors and civil magistrates.
In the light of an orientation for prelates that was moreover marked by a tendency towards severity, how can one reconcile this with the image transmitted by inquisitorial documents, which instead seem to indicate a kingdom grappling with an endemic crypto-Judaism? Why did the bishops and their visitors not see what the inquisitors recorded almost everywhere? Paiva was thus able to formulate a thesis of a close collaboration between bishops and inquisitors, subsequently adopted by all scholars. Following the strands of the diffusion of Jansenist ideas at the heart of the Church in Portugal and its empire, Evergton Sales Souza has provided a fascinating history of the inextricable relation between Catholic doctrines, spirituality and politics between the 17 th and 18 th centuries, which once again revived questions about the relationship between bishops and inquisitors, on the one hand, and between the Holy Office and confessions, on the other.
The tension between the reforming faction of the bishops and the Inquisition exploded once more into a violent dispute about the jurisdictions of confessors who violated the tenet of secrecy. It was taken up once more by Prosperi, who worked on Roman sources, while in his book Sales Souza has revealed his rare sensibility as a scholar of religious history. This offers possible perspectives not just for the history of concrete relations between the three modern tribunals, but also for a comparison of their institutional forms and judicial strategies.
For the moment, it presents an as yet blurred image of a general collaboration between the tribunals, albeit one that did not lack friction, sometimes due to a show of force or even due to profound procedural differences. Thus, to present their results in a different section could seem to be a forced and artificial separation. In fact, the notable increase in research about the Holy Office in Portuguese colonial territories in the last two decades has resulted in a historiographic production that, in large measure, does not conform to the periods and directions of the studies that have been mentioned in the preceding pages.
There is no doubt that decolonisation and the end of the dictatorship in Portugal and in Brazil ensured that, as an object of study, the Inquisition in the Portuguese empire was increasingly free of the nationalist and apologetic rhetoric that still surrounded Portuguese colonialism during the third quarter of the last century. The same year also witnessed the publication of a volume by Laura de Mello e Souza about controlling witchcraft in Portuguese America, which, for the first time, examined the subject of the colonial Inquisition without merely limiting its gaze to the extension of the struggle between the Holy Office and conversos to the New World.
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Ronaldo Vainfas used the sources of the Holy Office to penetrate the universe of an exuberant sexual life, a physical encounter between European settlers, Amerindians and Africans taken as slaves to Brazil. The tribunal never established there a stable headquarters but instead depended either on the Lisbon tribunal North Africa, Atlantic Isles and settlements along the western shores of Africa or on that of Goa east coast of Africa.
Only partially justified by the loss of almost all the documents pertaining to over 17, cases although the invaluable lists mentioning the names of the accused, the dates of the cases, crimes and a brief summary of each case were fortunately saved , the lack of studies about the most bloody seat of the Portuguese Inquisition is in stark contrast to the historiography pertaining to Brazil.
This is the case with James Boyajian, while Ana Isabel Cannas da Cunha demonstrated to what extent the emergence of the Inquisition was due to the intention to export to India the persecution of the conversos who were fleeing from the Iberian Peninsula.
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Feitler has already taken the initiative in this regard, with an article written on the basis of material about the Holy Office in Goa preserved at the National Library in Rio de Janeiro. Moreover, alongside a study of the Holy Office in Portugal itself, the institutional history of the Inquisition in the Portuguese empire can be examined using the most up-to-date methodological proposals, so as to ensure an in-depth knowledge of the global impact that the Inquisition had on the extraordinary religious and cultural variety of its victims in the Portuguese world.
My essay also reflects upon organisational models and forms of intervention and their circulation throughout the empire, often due to the services rendered by the missionaries. The Inquisition nonetheless left an enduring legacy in a country like Portugal, which even today has a strong Catholic identity.
Anyone who wishes to embark upon such an endeavour in the coming years will be able to avail of a wealth of studies and research, apart from the advantage of being able to access a centralised archive to clarify hitherto unexplored aspects. Scholars must be aware that they will only be able to proffer a partial glimpse of this history, without any pretensions of being an exhaustive guide, let alone an objective one. What is currently needed is an intelligent response to the pressing need for a general history of the Portuguese Inquisition, as exists in the case of the other two modern Inquisitions.
This is an inevitable outcome for a historiography that has consistently grown in recent decades and is now acknowledged to be of international importance, so that in the future it can move towards new and more penetrating questions. The book was revised until its last edition in It is a tool that promises to stand together works like Emil van der Vekene, Bibliotheca Bibliographica Historiae Sanctae Inquisitionis , 3 vols.
De Bujanda, 11 vols. A Bibliography of the Secondary Literature, ca. Archivi, problemi di metodo e nuove ricerche. Verso una nuova immagine?